Classification of batteries

Classification of batteries
In recent years, various types of batteries have been widely developed. As a reliable battery manufacturer, we are clearly aware of customer needs and strive to meet all user expectations. This article analyzes battery types from multiple aspects, such as service life, energy density, load characteristics, self-discharge rate, maintenance procedures, and operating costs.

First, lithium battery
Lithium batteries can be roughly divided into two categories: lithium metal batteries and lithium-ion batteries. Lithium-ion batteries do not contain metallic lithium and are rechargeable.
Lithium-ion batteries currently include liquid lithium-ion batteries (LIB) and polymer lithium-ion batteries (PLB). Among them, the liquid lithium ion battery refers to a secondary battery whose Li + intercalation compound is a positive electrode and a negative electrode. The positive electrode uses a lithium compound-lithium cobaltate and lithium manganate, and the negative electrode uses a lithium-carbon interlayer compound. Lithium-ion batteries are ideal energy carriers for the development of the 21st century due to their high working voltage, small size, light weight, high energy, no memory effect, no pollution, small self-discharge, and long cycle life.

l advantage
1. The energy is relatively high. With high storage energy density, it has reached 460-600Wh / kg, which is about 6-7 times that of lead-acid batteries;
2. Long service life. The service life can reach more than 6 years. The battery of lithium iron phosphate as the positive electrode is charged and discharged at 1C (100% DOD), and it has a record of 10,000 times;
3. The rated voltage is high (single working voltage is 3.7V or 3.2V), which is approximately equal to the series voltage of 3 nickel-cadmium or nickel-metal hydride rechargeable batteries, which is convenient to form a battery power pack; lithium batteries can be adjusted by a new type of lithium battery The technology of the voltage regulator adjusts the voltage to 3.0V to suit the use of small appliances;
4. It has high power bearing capacity, among which lithium iron phosphate lithium ion battery for electric vehicles can reach 15-30C charge and discharge capacity, which is convenient for high-intensity start acceleration;
5. The self-discharge rate is very low, which is one of the most outstanding advantages of the battery, generally it can be less than 1% / month, less than 1/20 of the nickel-hydrogen battery;
6. Light weight, about 1 / 6—1 / 5 of lead acid products under the same volume;
7. Strong adaptability to high and low temperature, can be used in the environment of -20 ℃ -60 ℃, after processing, it can be used in the environment of -45 ℃;
8. Green and environmentally friendly, regardless of production, use and scrap, it does not contain or produce any toxic and harmful heavy metal elements and substances such as lead, mercury, cadmium;
9. Production basically consumes no water, which is very beneficial to China that is short of water. Zh
l disadvantage
1. Lithium primary batteries have poor safety and there is a danger of explosion.
2. Lithium-ion lithium batteries cannot be discharged at high currents, are expensive, and have poor safety.
3. Li-ion batteries need to protect the circuit to prevent the battery from being overcharged and discharged.
4. High production requirements and high costs.
5. There are restrictions on the use conditions, and there is a high risk of high and low temperature use.

2. Nickel-cadmium battery, as a kind of rechargeable battery, has the characteristics of high discharge level, long service life, and affordable price. However, because nickel-cadmium batteries contain toxic substances such as chemical cadmium, which will cause pollution to the environment, appropriate methods must be adopted for recycling. As a result, nickel-cadmium batteries have gradually faded out of our field of vision.
In addition, nickel-cadmium batteries are heavy and have a “memory effect” that will reduce battery life and even cause the battery to fail. The so-called “memory effect” means that when a user discharges a nickel-cadmium battery that has not been fully discharged, the battery will “remember” the charging progress at the time of the last charge, so that its maximum capacity is equal to the capacity value. To avoid the “memory effect”, the user needs to completely discharge the battery, and the battery needs to be fully recharged at least once every few weeks.
l advantage
1. Charging is fast and easy-even after long-term storage, fast and convenient charging can still be performed;
2. The charge / discharge cycle coefficient is large-through comprehensive maintenance, the nickel-cadmium battery can guarantee more than one thousand charge / discharge cycles;
3. The load performance is superior-the nickel-cadmium battery can be charged in a low temperature environment;
4. Shelf life is long;
5. Has the strongest price advantage; 5.
6. Different types and sizes are available for selection.
l disadvantage
1. A relatively low energy density;
2. It has a “memory effect”;
Pollution of the environment; 3. Pollution of the environment;
4. Relatively high self-discharge coefficient-it needs to be charged when it is used again after storage.

Third, the nickel-metal hydride battery is less affected by the “memory effect” and has simple maintenance. However, in low or high temperature environments, its working performance will be affected. Although nickel-metal hydride batteries do not contain heavy metals, they cannot be completely recycled at this stage. In terms of energy density, nickel-metal hydride batteries have more significant advantages than nickel-cadmium batteries, which means that nickel-metal hydride batteries can bring longer operating time than nickel-cadmium batteries without additional weight.
l advantage
1. It is easy to store;
2. It does not pollute the environment;
3. The capacity is 30% -40% higher than that of ordinary nickel-cadmium batteries;
4. The effect of “memory effect” is less than that of nickel-cadmium batteries;
5. It has fewer periodic full discharge / charge cycles than nickel-cadmium batteries;
l disadvantage
1. The service life is limited-if deep cycling is frequently performed, especially under high load current, the performance starts to deteriorate after 200 to 300 cycles.
2. The charging current is limited-Although nickel-metal hydride batteries can deliver high-intensity charging current, periodic high-current charging will reduce battery life.
3. Ni-MH batteries will generate more heat than Ni-Cd batteries when they are charged, and the charging time will be longer than Ni-Cd batteries.
4. High self-discharge properties-The self-discharge properties of nickel-metal hydride batteries are 50% higher than those of nickel-cadmium batteries.
5. Storage in high temperature environment will lead to performance degradation-nickel-metal hydride batteries need to be stored in a cool place, and the charging capacity must be maintained at about 40%.
6. High Maintenance-In order to prevent crystallization, the battery needs to be fully charged on a regular basis.


Post time: Dec-25-2019
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